Influence of OUN and its agencies on formation of contemporary concept of social development

Monday, August 13th, 2012

Source

Vojin Vidanović [1]

Abstract

Modern concepts of social development were created along with the expanding activities of the United Nations which, in addition to safeguarding world peace, in recent decades, advocates for the reduction of economic and social disparities between developed and developing countries. This means that the priorities of social development is not only decide on the national level, that leaves the traditional principle of making the only nationally-led social development. This orientation is embodied in the creation of a very influential international organizations and agencies, including of course the greatest importance and role of the United Nations and its specialized organizations with supranational sign. This approach has contributed to the promotion of social development as an inevitable factor in contributing to improving the lives of najnerazvijednijim parts of the world and all spheres of human existence.

Keywords: United Nations, UN specialized agencies, globalization, social development, sustainable social development

In line

Contemporary concepts and definitions specifically point out that social development as part of social development include changes related to improving the quality of life, opportunities to meet, promotion and enrichment of diverse and universal human needs, raising the social security of citizens, improving the conditions of production and reproduction of life and prevention of social problems [2] .

For these reasons, it follows that, at the global level, the idea of ​​modern social development resulting from the search options for resolving the economic, political and social contradictions of the modern world, especially developing countries. In this context includes the social development program of social change, prevention and overcoming social problems based on the concept of human development, integrated social and economic development and sustainable development.

This approach to theory and practice of global social development is based on two important conditions: the first is the acceptance of change and recognition that this process always takes place dynamically in every community, and at all times while the second condition, the possibility that people may strongly influence the fate of their own social .

This particularly applies to the period in the last half century, which is characterized by a true desire of most developing countries toward social development, which should provide for the needs of people in important spheres of life and reduce the existing social tensions. This approach stems from the fact that the economic problems of underdeveloped countries and follow a very big social problems: hunger, malnutrition, high mortality, illiteracy, unemployment, health vulnerability, poverty and misery, which inhibit and slow down the economic and social development. Experience immediate implementation of the program indicate that the palliative measures can not achieve significant results, both in social and in economic spheres, and economic development in and out of underdevelopment is not possible without taking into account the social component.

Because of the complexity of the issues covered by the social development as well as the specifics of contemporary national and international problems that arise in the process of transition and globalization in recent years can be seen growing interest of the United Nations and its specialized agencies, not only for theoretical analysis but also for the implementation of various concepts related on social development.

Although there are no universal laws of social development, no single universal formula and development of modern social science have enough knowledge about the patterns and regularities of social movements, which may be used for design and construction of social change and international levels. The most important change in international organizations followed in terms of their orientation program, because in addition to conventional care for preventing armed conflicts between nations, the greatest attention to improving economic and social development and reducing the gap between the developed and underdeveloped parts of the world.

As stated in the process of organization of the United Nations played a major role, the organization and its specialized agencies will be given special attention.

The role of the United Nations

Although the concept of social development has a relatively long tradition, is no doubt that the modern concept of social development defined the late sixties of the 20th century when the various institutions within the United Nations (UN) pointed to the necessity of parallel, integrated economic and social development of developing countries in order backlog rehabilitation and acute social problems and a faster exit from the general underdevelopment [3] . It is emphasized that social development involves a socially defined goals for a specified time period, setting enough money available to the society in order to achieve these goals, as well as the correlation between goals and means on one of factors and objective conditions.

In these aspects dominate the following issues: the struggle for promotion of human development, reduce unemployment and poverty, reduce regional disparities, assistance during natural and social disasters, especially the prevention of diseases that are often the result of poor social and material conditions of life. In the above-mentioned context, particularly the important efforts to improve care for children and for the development and protection of human rights and freedoms. Also, the UN’s programs present a concern for environmental protection, and control the result of inadequate use of natural resources, leading to economic stagnation, poverty and environmental pollution.

In this sense, all the UN’s increasing orientation towards the elaboration of a current concept of “sustainable development” which promotes the achievement of long-term social goals with a balanced resource consumption, environmental awareness and promotion of modern environmental standards.

During the period when the increased number of UN member economic development planning becomes increasingly important issue because of “economic planning, tailored to the specific conditions and needs of developing countries, one of the main preconditions for its rapid economic and social development” [4] . Therefore, the first UN resolution on the development called for an “urgent need of less developed countries to set and implement national, universal and comprehensive development plans, to build their societies according to their needs.” At the same time, UN have taken actions to coordinate national and international efforts towards the rapid progress in developing countries. Thus, the UN, other than technical assistance, and began to provide immediate assistance in the field of planning, sending experts and sending peacekeeping missions in the affected areas due to the war. Through its activities, the UN reaffirmed the need and necessity of economic planning and social development in the so-called. “Developing countries”.

Taking all this into account, it can be concluded that the UN had been a very important role in promoting the most important principles of social development, based on basic values ​​of nurturing human freedom, dignity and justice. The source of all this can be found in major UN declarations and conclusions of international conferences and direct involvement of specialized committees and agencies.

For a clearer recognition of the role of the UN in the field of social development will be briefly analyzed relevant documents of the United Nations who have made the impact, and is now affecting the global social development, such as the Declaration and the UN Charter, as well as business organizations and specialized agencies.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

By analyzing the content of the Declaration of Human Rights (1948) [5] can be established without doubt that in it the first time at the global level, emphasizes the need to develop social and economic rights, which is focused through activities such as: access to education, health care , political participation, creating conditions for adequate standard of living, including the right to liberty, personal security and dignity. As can be concluded declaration contains a list of fundamental rights of every person regardless of skin color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin. Human rights stand out as “natural rights” that belong to people simply because they are human beings.

Rights are usually classified into three categories:

  • Civil and political rights;
  • Economic and social rights;
  • The right to a healthy environment, cultural rights and the right to development;

The declaration is significant because in addition to the first part in which the amount of civil and political rights include the rights and welfare such as social security, work, free choice of employment, fair working conditions, protection against unemployment, trade unions, rest, restriction of work hours and periodic holidays with pay, adequate standard of living, health care, education, participation in cultural life.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has become the heritage of civilization, the obligation of States to respect its provisions and accepted by the world public opinion as a starting point for assessing the status of people around the world.

 

Declaration on Social Development

By accepting this policy by the United Nations in 1969. adopted a Declaration on Social Progress and Development in which the most fully specified meaning of the term social development. From this declaration shows that the goal of social development, constantly improving the material and spiritual living standards of all members of society, which can be made productive employment, improving nutrition, raising the standard of health, level of education and culture, the provision of adequate housing and social insurance and social protection of particularly vulnerable groups in society such as children, mothers, youth, elderly and disabled persons [6] .

One definition of community development created under the auspices of the UN to best reflect the essence and the key principles of this approach: “The term community development has entered into international use to refer to the process through which unites the efforts of people and government with the goal of economic, social and cultural conditions of communities to integrate into the life of the nation and to thus enable the full national progress. ”

Declaration on Social Progress and Development states that the purpose of social progress and development of a never-ending increase in the material and spiritual living standards of all members of society, in accordance with human rights and fundamental freedoms. In this declaration mentioned, and social development plan as part of global development planning in general. Social development is that the primacy of target other types of development.

Declaration on Social Progress and Progress points out the following rights and principles:

  • National independence based on the rights of people to make independent decisions;
  • The principle of nonintervention in internal affairs of the state;
  • Respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity of each drževe
  • Permanent sovereignty of every nation on the basis of its priprodnog wealth and resources;
  • Right on the responsibility of the state and every nation and people to freely decide on their goals of social development, to set their own priorities idau accordance with the principles of the Charter of the UN decide on the means and methods of development without outside interference;
  • Peaceful coexistence, peace, friendly relations and cooperation between states, regardless of differences in their social, economic and politically system.

It is considered that the Declaration is an essential basis for development of the theory and practice of social development, and establishes a substantial basis for the later relevant UN documents on the subject. It can be said that this declaration is a clear expression of the global need for positive change, both in terms of developing nations, UN members, as well as building new relationships and equality among nations. Its importance is as a summary of many previously adopted UN Declaration with the common goal of social development as a common denominator and the practical expression of the striving for human rights and the eradication of all forms of discrimination against individuals and social groups [7] .

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Man

The United Nations constantly trying to operationalize their own action plans to create a stronger obligation of all Member States, relating to satisfy basic human needs and concerns for the improvement of the social development. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of Man, unlike the Declaration, is focused on this to create stronger obligations of States which have ratified it to meet the basic needs of every man: for food, water, employment, right to social security, decent standard of living, right to health, special protection of mothers and children, rights of disabled persons idrugo. Also, there are the right to participate in cultural life, the right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress is freedom to use the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which is the creator of man [8] .

Thus, social development is linked with participatory approaches in all types of social interests and demands skills in interpersonal and group communications. Thus, for example, self-help organization for significant mechanisms of social development, as developing skills in interpersonal relationships.

The ideas and practice of social development (and especially the social development of communities) are in some sense a reaction to the overemphasis on the importance of economic development in particular the role of market mechanisms to overcome social problems and contradictions. Most conceptions of social development emphasize the need for balance between economic and social development and to link social and economic goals. In particular, it relates to the idea of ​​sustainable development.

In order to increase economic and social development, it is certain that such an approach is required which ensures that economic development is of direct benefit to social welfare, such as the need to devise social development activities of benefit to economic development.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

The Convention on the Rights of the UN in 1989. , is the most important international document, which protects the rights of the child and setting standards in this area. Ratified by almost all UN member states. The Convention is based on the belief that all human rights are interrelated and mutually dependent, and the content of the rights set forth in this Convention may be labeled as “security, protection, participation and prevention.” The right to security concerns on children’s rights to life and development, the name and nationality, to know who his parents and be cared for by them, the right to preserve identity, to education and health care. Rights to participation include civil and political rights and freedoms. Protection rights related to the protection of every child’s physical, sexual and psychological exploitation. Rights relating to the prevention of the obligation of States Parties to take all measures necessary to prevent any act detrimental to the child [9] .

Since its adoption, the Convention on the Rights of the Child has become the basis for the actions of UNICEF (the specialized agencies for the protection and promotion of children’s rights) in the individual countries, uključujujući and Serbia. The Convention represents a significant achievement in the development and strengthening of international law in the field of child development. This document, in one place, covered all human rights recognized by a particular group of people, which is a novelty in international law. Thanks to this Convention has become the most important international treaty on the Rights of the Child, and all other international human rights treaties, which are dedicated to particular provisions of the Rights of the subsidiary for support.

Besides being the first international document that includes all human rights in relation to children, the Convention was established as an innovative and challenging a new law, such as the right child to express his opinion and the right of the child victims of all forms of exploitation to physical and psychological treatment and integration . The Convention is the first international document that recognizes the role of NGOs in the protection and enjoyment of child rights in general, the primary means of promocja and protect the child at the international and national level [10] .

In addition, the Convention has influenced the further development of international law as well as a number of important international processes such as world conferences, summits and other meetings where important political decisions made in connection with the Rights of the Child. The Convention has given great impetus to the development and activities of civil society that plays a vital role in achieving children’s rights. However, what is most certainly due to the Convention in all states potpisnicma made significant progress in introducing measures for the realization of child rights.

The Convention has special significance in the effort to the rights of children and youth is one of social rights, and is an integral part of social development strategies that children viewed as the future of every nation, as can be seen from the provisions of the Millennium Declaration and other documents relevant to contemporary social development.

Global Summit on Social Development

The first World Summit for Social Development held in 1995. organized by the UN Institute for Social Development was the largest meeting of leaders (over 180 countries) in which to discuss the life of the people, the social problems the world faces, in order to improve the social image of the world in the future, to increase the employment rate, quality of life and social development to a higher level [11] .Declaration on Social Development and Programme of Action to combat poverty, adopted at the summit, put the needs of people at the center of development and international cooperation and assistance to the development of underdeveloped countries – the poorest countries, debt relief, help to access health care and education of the population and define in detail the ways in to be obligations of the Declaration into practice.

In contrast to the usual formulation of the previous UN documents in which they emphasized the recommendations, principles, etc., in the Declaration on Social Development expressly and specifically to develop precise obligations of participants and the summit of the world community.

World Summit on Social Development held in Geneva, 2000. as a special session of the UN General Assembly, entitled “Geneva 2000”. And he proposed new initiatives to meet the targets set in Kopenhagenskoj Declaration and Programme of Action [12] .

The Millennium Summit held in 2000. in New York. The Millennium Declaration was adopted, which includes important Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As one of the conclusions highlighted the necessity of building a mechanism that will examine the social consequences of economic processes.

Third World Summit on Social Development held in 2005. year. The United Nations summit described as “the largest gathering of world leaders in history” and “environmental conditions smelijih decision-making in the areas of development, security, human rights and UN reform.” Discussed the success of the implementation of the MDGs in the period to 2005. year and all members present, including Serbia, have pledged that they will be implemented by 2015. years [13] .

UN Millennium Summit

Out of all these international meetings, the most important is called. “Millennium Summit” held in New York 2000th year (World Conference on soc. development) as a summary of all previous conferences and practical principles of development in the sublimation of the most important objectives and a strategy that is now known as the Millennium Development Goals.

UN Millennium Development Goals were adopted as guidelines for development in all countries that are striving to create conditions to improve living and working conditions that meet the needs of people. It can be argued that the development of UN member states at the global level and to measure achievement in meeting these goals [14] . In this sense the UN Millennium Development Goals can be viewed in the context of global, development.

The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations provide a global social development plan to 2015. aimed at [15] :

– Halve poverty rate of the population and eradicate hunger;

– Achieve universal primary education;

– Promote gender equality and empower women;

– Reduce child mortality;

– Improve maternal health;

– Work on the prevention of HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis and other diseases;

– Ensure environmental sustainability;

– Develop a global partnership for development;

The Millennium Declaration has directly affected the plans of the signatory countries, including Serbia, especially in the short and medium term plans for the period to 2015. year. In the process of realization of the Millennium Summit was particularly significant place 2010th in New York who had an objective analysis of the implementation and accelerate progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, including a detailed overview of the analysis of achievements, best practices, obstacles and challenges, so called. “specific learning strategies in action.” The goal of the Summit was the connection of the Millennium Development cilljeva with agreed international development agenda in order to create synergies among the various development objectives and the need for an integrated approach to achieving them.

Because of the ambitious programs of the organization for the protection of human rights often criticize the concept of the Millennium, because it is not sufficiently emphasized the link between goals, and the necessary material basis of human rights. Critics consider MDGs as they largely unattainable because certain regions such as Africa subsharske so underdeveloped that without extensive international aid can not achieve the desired changes [16] .

The second objection is that international organizations do not have a direct impact on how these goals will be realized within national systems and capacities for the role of the state significantly reduced the neo-liberal economics and globalization. However, despite this criticism, it is clear that the Millennium Development Goals aimed at achieving the universality of economic, social and cultural rights because it creates a favorable environment for their implementation.

This is most evident in the “Report on the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals” [17]published by the UN Development Program (UNDP) 2010. g. as a critical analysis of the achievements at the half of the scheduled period of realization of the objectives. The report states that the results of realization of the Millennium Development Goals in the regions around the world are unequal, however, that progress in the regions where the challenges are greatest (subsaharaska Africa and other underdeveloped parts of the world). Results achieved in successful cases show that progress is possible, but the extra effort needed to fully achieve the goals by 2015.

Globally, as the results stand out:

  • The proportion of people living in extreme poverty from 1990 to 2004 fell from third to less than one-fifth. If trends hold, the main goal of poverty reduction will be achieved. Special attention is given to the number of poor in Sub-Saharan region has declined by 6% since 2000., But also the region most lagging behind in achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and that further efforts and resources;
  • In these regions, access to primary education has improved from 80% in 1991 to 88% in 2005., And most of the progress achieved since 1999;
  • There was an improvement in the political participation of women;
  • Child mortality decreased globally, although it is still a big problem;
  • Improved control of the spread of malaria;

The last UN report on Human Development warned that success in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in the poorest countries can not depend solely on their weak economies and small development opportunities. Developed countries should fully fulfill its promises of official development assistance of 0.7% of GDP by 2015. Also, a group of eight most developed countries, the G8 called upon to fulfill his promise in 2005 that by 2010, doubling aid to Africa and the EU promised that by 2015 e-allocate 0.7% of GDP for development aid [18] .

Part of the strategic analysis of achievement of the MDGs is that, if they still want to achieve in a timely manner, we need increased financial investment in development, and innovative programs and policies aimed at overall development so that economic and social transformation of each condition.The conclusion is that development goals are still achievable, but it is necessary to overcome obstacles to their achievement.

Relevant agencies of the UN Social Development

In development planning, the UN is engaged in two ways: directly and indirectly. Directly, through the UN Development Programme (UNDP), which funded several projects in the planning of the Africa, Asia and Latin America. Also refers to a number of experts in development planning, which is engaged in designing national plans. Indirectly, the UN is engaged and centers of formation of the Committee for Development Planning, as well as the establishment of the UN Fund for financing activities in the field of development planning. However, several important UN bodies on the overall process of setting goals, planning and program development.

United Nations Development Programme

Among the many agencies and UN bodies, organizational, social development and planning is the most important United Nations Development Program, which is involved in achieving the following development goals: helping the UN to become a strong and cohesive force for sustainable human development, focuses its resources on a number of common goals for sustainable human development, such as poverty elimination, environmental regeneration, open spaces and radih progress for women, strengthening international cooperation for sustainable human development and serves as an important means for its implementation. [19] . In order to carry out projects and programs supported by UNDP uses national technical capacities of developing countries as well as the expertise of over 30 international and regional agencies and NGOs. In the center of UNDP activities and people, and aims to focus on six priorities: DEVELOPMENT elimination of poverty, environment and natural resources, management development, technical cooperation among developing countries, technology transfer and adaptation, and inclusion of women in development. Entrepreneurship is promoted as a means of promoting employment and reducing poverty. This also increases the demand for assistance in the area of ​​good governance and human rights.

Economic and Social Council

A significant body of the UN Economic and Social Council. Under his (formal) are sponsored institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Trade Organization, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, the World Tourism Organization and others.Their main goal is to encourage the implementation of the Declaration and the UN development goals, and coordinating the work of 14 specialized agencies and commissions, including the five global “regional” commissions.

The Council receives reports from all UN funds and programs and serves as a central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and to formulate recommendations that are given to members of the UN. His responsibility for the [20] :

  • Promotion of higher standards of living, employment and economic prosperity;
  • Identifying solutions to international problems;
  • Mediation in international, cultural and educational cooperation;
  • Encouraging universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Besides, as a special assignment Economic and Social Council is to initiate studies and reports on all these issues and assist in the preparation of major international conferences in the economic and social fields and coordinates the implementation of activities and documents to be made on important global events. With such broad powers of the Economic and Social Council has more than 70% of human and financial resources of the entire UN system.

In order to achieve the broad goals set the Economic and Social Council cooperates with representatives of science, business sector and a large number of NGOs.

Center for Planning, Design and Development Policy

The most influential factor in relation to solving global social problems within the UN, has the Center for Planning, Design and Development Policy, which is in fact operationalization of the Committee for Development Planning. UN experts have pointed out that economic and social development in developing countries go the direction that leads to increasing social nejednakositi and exacerbation of existing problems, primarily due to increasing income disparities uraspodeli among population groups, inadequate agricultural policy, population policy, the policy field of education and enlightenment of the masses, and so on.

Under the influence of these initiatives has been accepted view that developing countries need to apply this methodology and the planning system which would be comprehensive and that would include plans for development of social sector (social services, social services and standards).

The two basic guiding principles of the Center for the planning, design and development policy that every human being has the right to a decent life and that all people have the right to equal participation in decisions that affect their lives. The challenge of research is the personalization of these values, but also in response to the situation and extent of their ignorance in some societies it is the most important task “of the Department of Sustainable Development [21] . ”

Direct involvement of the UN in the field of social planning in developing countries is done by financing the construction of planned facilities, as islanjem Creation, revision and implementation of national plans. Stručnjaci OUN, takođe, obučavaju tehničko osoblje i planere iz zemalja u razvoju, kako bi sami mogli da izvršavaju zadatke koji im se postavljaju u vezi sa planiranjem.

Pored tela OUN, značajnu ulogu u ostvarivanju planiranja razvoja i socijalnog planiranja imaju i Međunarodna organizacija rada, Svetska banka i Međunarodni monetarni fond koji u sopstvenim dokumentima, planovima i izveštajima razrađuju koncepcije socijalnog razvoja koje su u saglasnosti sa ciljevima iznetim u dokumentima Organizacije ujedinjenih nacija.

Conclusion

Iz svega što je navedeno u prethodnoj analizi najvažniji zaključak je da je neophodno proces socijalnog razvoja analizirati u svetlu globalizacije, odnosno sve većeg uticaja posebno Ujedinjenih nacija i njenih specijalizovanih agencija. U takvim međunarodnim okolnostima ipak je zadržana autonomija nacionalnih programa socijalne politike i socijalnog razvoja, ali su Ujedinjene nacije tokom poslednjih decenija uticale i danas utiču na: osnaživanje i poštovanje ljudskih prava, prava dece, smanjenje siromaštva, razvoj nedovoljno razvijenih područja, kao i zaštitu manjinskih, ugroženih i marginalizovanih grupa. Detaljnija analiza uticaja OUN na socijalni razvoj u našoj zemlji nesumnjivo pokazuje značajan pomak posebno u praćenju socijalnih indikatora na osnovu kojih se planiraju programi socijalnog razvoja i njihova implentacija u svim sferama ljudskog života. Pored saradnje sa državnim organima i vladama pojedinih zemalja u značajnoj meri je povećan uticaj nevladinih organizacija koje su svojim kadrovskim potencijalima kao i korišćenjem međunarodnih iskustava učinile programe socijalnog razvoja prihvatljivim i održivim iu onim oblastima koje su decenijama bile zapostavljene.

Literature

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Internet resursi

UNDP
http://www.undp.org (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

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http://www.un.org/esa/dsd/ (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

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            http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/

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Summary

Contemporary concept of social development have been created paralelly with extended actions of organization of United nations, which are, beside keeping the world peace, in last decades contributing the reduction of economical and social inequalities between developed and less developed countries of the world.

This includes the idea that priorities of social development will be discussed not only at the national level, abandoing the traditional idea of deciding of exclusevly nationaly directed social development. Such orientation is embodied in creation of very influentual international organizations and agencies, among whom biggest infleuence and role is delegated to Organization of United Nations as well as its specialized international agencies. Such approach has contributed to affirmation of social development as factor in contributing ehancement of living conditions in all parts of the world and all countres in development, in all spheres of human existence.

Key words: organization of United nations, specialized OUN agencies, globalization, social development, sustainable social development


[1] dr Vojin Vidanović, Asistent na Fakultetu političkih nauka vojin.vidanovic@fpn.bg.ac.rs

[2] Lakićević, M. Gavrilović, A.: Soc i jaln i ra zv oj i plan i ranje , FPN, Beograd, 2008., str. 22

[3] Lakićević, M. Gavrilović, A.: Soc i jaln i ra zv oj i plan i ranje , FPN, Beograd, 2008., str. 7

[4] Rezolucija GS OUN o planiranju ekonomskog razvoja (1963) br. 1939

[5] Univerzalna deklaracija o ljudskim pravima GS OUN 1948.

[6] Deklaracija o socijalnom razvoju i napretku GS OUN 2542 1969.

[7] Kočović, D., Socijalna politika , 2007.FPN, str. 108-109

[8] Vuković, D. “Socijalna sigurnost i socijalna prava”, Čigoja, Beograd, 2005., str. 36-37

[9] Konvencija o pravima deteta GS OUN 1989., Nju Jork

[10] Vučković-Šahović, N. (ur.) : Prava deteta u međunarodnim dokumentima , Zaštitnik građana, Beograd, 2011,
page. 8

[11] Sajt prvog Samita iz 1995 http://www.iisd.ca/wssd95.html (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[12] Sajt samita Ženeva 2000 http://social.un.org/index/Home/Geneva2000.aspx (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[13] Vajs, E. , Svetski samit o socijalnom razvoju , čas. Socijalna politika i socijalni rad, Beograd, 1-2/96, str. 44.,

[14] UN Milenijumski projekat http://www.unmilleniumproject.org (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[15] Millenium Development Goals Indicators http://mdgs.un.org/ (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[16] Millenium Development Goals Report 2010, OUN, Nju Jork

[17] Morvaridi, B., Social Justice and development , Palgrave Macmillan, Nju Jork, 2008., str. 102-104

[18] Human Development Report 2007 , Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in divided world UNDP ,
Nju Jork, 2007.

[19] UNDP http://www.undp.org   (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[20] Ekonomsko-socijalni savet OUN                 http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/ (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

[21] UN Division for sustainable developmentwww.un.org/esa/dsd/ (pristupljeno: 20. aprila 2012.)

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