Marginalization and social exclusion of children WITHOUT PARENTS
The paper analyzes various aspects of marginalization and social exclusion of children without parental care in institutional care. The study of 12 homes for children without parental care, a sample of 123 professionals, the data indicate that the basic problems of mental health of children and young people, while in the institution and in preparation for independent living.
It points to the need for learning social skills using the methods of group work as well as organizing educational, experiential workshops and kreaeativnih. This would reduce the basic fear of the uncertain future of young people, and distrust of institutions that are responsible not only for social care but also for developing and maintaining mental health of children and young people.
Keywords: children without parental care, marginalization, social exclusion, social integration, social skills, mental health.
Marginalization is defined as the occurrence of uncertain social position of groups or individuals, which prevents the fulfillment of their basic needs or zauauzimanje respective positions in society. At the current marginalization of research is considered an important indicator of democratic society as well as potential social conflicts. The practical effects of marginalization is reflected in the inability of people to achieve key social values such as proper employment, social security, a demonstration of the ability kreaeativnih present frustration free access to the resources of society and life in relative isolation.
Such groups include: physically or mentally handicapped persons, the Roma population and other stigmatized ethnic or minority gruSocijalna
pe on other grounds, the unemployed, the elderly population and vulnerable people, children without parental care as well as refugees and immigrants. As a result of marginalization, there is exclusion from social processes. Marginalized groups are not sufficiently available social resources for the acquisition of material goods or social status tranquility of their needs or aspirations. Therefore, the marginalization and social exclusion not only states but also the processes associated with general social and political development of the community.
For the reasons mentioned bodies, in particular in order to create conditions for conservation and prevention of mental health, modern orientation in social work tends to encourage all those processes that influence the reduction of marginalization and social exclusion, including: encouraging employment and reducing poverty, ensuring access to social resources of all persons free ez YX YX YX ira their race, religion or national orientation or disability of various degrees, ensuring adequate social protection systems, creating equal opportunities for education and social mobility, and better social integration.
Children without roditeljs roditeljs roditeljs without any starastarastaranja
tory as a marginalized group about group
Of these marginalized groups or groups which is less accessible and often prevented social promotion in particularly poor shape are children without parents, especially those placed in children’s homes (according to the Ministry for Social Policy in Serbia is about 1 800 children obubuhvaćeno institutional care). As is known, research in developmental psychology suggest that the absence of parental care, especially in younger children, leading children into a state of high risk to the existential, psychological and physical, social and educational level. A normal child development requires certain conditions to achieve emotional maturity and ability to sound reaeaguje the internal conflicts and external troubles that life inevitably brings.
See detailed in Jugovic A. (2007): Beyond the limits of society: marginalization, social exclusion and marginal groups, in: Social Science no. 53, January-March 2007, pp. 31 -66, IP Social Thought, Belgrade.
Marginalization and social exclusion …
From the standpoint of mental hygiene, many studies clearly indicate that the child will be emotionally damaged character, and changed if deprived of such relations and the more so since the separation from their parents were at a younger age, and if it lasted longer. In his famous study of maternal care and mental health, John Bolbi provides excellent support izuzučavanju this issue. His assumptions are not only a product of an experienced observer, but the proven series of studies, which follow the dynamic development of children and examined the consequences of deprivation of maternal care. Subsequent studies that have been inspired Bololbija findings have shown the correctness of his assumptions, not only with regard to children who have been deprived of the birth parents’ care, but it applies to children who are at a later age left without protection or, due to illness, was hospitalized for longer. The detrimental effects of prolonged stay of children in the institution, without his mother’s care without the intimate contact of the individual, many consider the specific disorder with specific symptoms called m hospitalization. ”
The analysis of previous research on the institutional care of children can be seen that most attention has been focused on organizational issues (size of the institution, providing basic living conditions) and the problems of implementation of educational programs (homogeneous or heterogeneous groups, the content of the program) and the question of extent to which this form of protection corresponding to different age groups of children. However, a small number of research points to the psycho-social problems of children in social care. One such study reaealizovali in 2002. Institute of Psychology and Save The Children United Kingdom and published in the book Children without parental care ez.
As part of his thesis 2006th g. I organized a special investigation with the main objective to study the possibilities of social integration of institutionalized children without parental care from the perspective of professionals employed in these institutions. The study was conducted among 123 professionals in 12 homes for children without parental care in Serbia. Experts say that the most common developmental problems of children under 14 years of age as follows:
Bolbi biomass. (1973): Maternal and child care for mental health, Publishing Institute, Titograd.
Published in the monograph Vidanović V. (2007): Social integration of children without parental care ez, Foundation forbidden.
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disinterest in school (21.95%);
aggression toward other children (13, 82%);
contempt of the house rules (13%);
neueuspeh at school (13%);
lack of social skills (13%);
In addition to these, to an extent is manifested:
aggressiveness of the inventory;
tendency to steal;
difficulties of communication with staff;
running away from home.
When it comes to children over 14 years, which is necessary to make appropriate discharge plan and prepare for the start of independent life, the structure of developmental problems is significantly different.
It is indicative that a large percentage of respondents (72.1%) reported fears of the future and fear of social protection. This points to the harmful effects of long-term residence in an institution, the lack of contact between the home-community. Although the home is not a very closed environment, it is certain to cause a lengthy stay of isolation that contributes to the fear of the environment (that is, the existence of other negative characteristics, the literature often referred to as “domomski syndrome”) and which, with the existence of bad experiences (eg . stigmatization, the manifestation of prejudice and the like.) leads to a pronounced fear of the expected start of the independence rezultitra the conscious and unconscious resistances to end protection. This fear is correlated with severe problems of lack razuzumevanja social community, which may further lead to the confidence in yourself and your abilities (expressed in 38%) or low samopououzdanja, when the ability to start an independent life at stake.
In addition, pronounced inadequate contact with the center for social work. This problem is related to the work of the professional services and overburdened social workers, and the child’s perception of the future. Contact the home and the center is very important for the training of children for successful return to the community in which they lived and their acceptance as painlessly as possible, especially when taking into account the powers of the social center of a ward.
Marginalization and social exclusion … 65
All four expressed a problem – the fear of the future, fear of the environment, inadequate contact with the CSR and distrust of himself as the most complex psychosocial difficulties and barriers that affect the process of social integration. For these reasons, it is very important for the experts of all profiles to adapt their methodology the essential needs of youth, which will gradually train them to be able to live independently after leaving the institution.
Social integration of children with no integration without
roditeljs roditeljs roditeljs any starastarastaranja
As already mentioned, the most important goal of social integration is an attempt to create the possibility of involvement of children without parental care ez social life in the community. In theory, given the processes and methods by which this is feasible. These are:
Fostering secure attachment (“atačačmenta”) and reducing domestic violence, or other environment;
Podudučavanje cognitive and social skills (effective strategies to solve problems, neaeagresivno reaeagovanje of provocation);
Improving the environment (home, school, neighborhood) to support a custom social behavior;
Teaching skills suouočavanja with stress;
Improving personal capacity and empowerment;
Education and development of social skills.
Since the social integration of complex and dynamic process of its determinants is impossible to strictly divided into those that still operate on the integrative and disintegrative ones that work, or obstruct or hinder the integration process. Particularly important role in the overall process of social integration zauauzimaju objectives that are put before the individual or group. Ukolioliko the goals that were outlined in the individual and groups alike, they can be a motivating factor for integration.
Therefore, for successful targeted integration required meaningful, kvalialitetniji and responsible professional work that must take into account the following educational objectives:
Kuzmanovic B. and associates (2002): Children without parental care ez, Institute of Psychology and Save the Children, Belgrade.
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Relationship to the person’s value system;
Person’s relationship to society at large;
Relationship of people to another man;
Person’s relationship to oneself;
Osobeeeeeeeprema relationship to nature in general;
The relationship osobeeeeeeeeeeprema world culture.
Integration as a process beyond the individual as a client of social services. It also refers to the integration of entire social groups, which were exposed to repression or the long isolated from active participation in community life. An example may be the children without parental care.
Learning life skills application
method method method of group work group work
In recent decades among professionals who deal with the problems of children without parental care is very prevalent approach that can be subsumed under a common name – learning life skills. It is believed that the teaching of life skills the best way to empowerment and social integration of children and young people.
Life skills related to perception (as observed), interpretation (as explained) and the reaction (as reaeaguje) on all aspect of daily life.
Various programs of this type have shown that these skills can exercise nauaučiti / improve, and many other skills, especially in the areas of social functioning. According to previous research, good psychosocial support programs are characterized by adaptation to the needs of the group to which the program is intended to focus and goals to be achieved. Of course, the process of “learning” or rather of skills is neither quick nor easy. Many projects psychosocial support because of the inability to provide continuity and duration do not achieve their best and leave the delusion that their influence is ephemeral. However, this effect is not negligible, but never as with any teaching, you need a period of “consolidation” of acquired skills. This is the period of application nauaučenog that was once impossible to detect because it is “hidden” in a current of thought or feeling. In all primenjenjih group work method is best accepted by young people in institutions.
Marginalization and social exclusion … 67
According to the data in the study, group work, the best results using the following forms: the group is to solve simple problems in life, the group is to reduce anxiety and napeapetosti, the group is to overcome the alienation and the development of uni adnosti, the group is for recreation, the group is socijalializaciju , the group is social action. Facilities obubuhvaćeni these forms contribute to the active participation of children in solving their everyday problems.
Using the method of group work in acquiring certain social skills are achieved significant successes, and to the following skills: self redstvaljanje, listening, apologies, thanks and recognition and expression of emotion.
The survey obtained information that the positive effects of group work achieved the highest percentage of children who have a fear of social protection. They are particularly suitable for this workshop such as:
Educational workshops aimed at acquiring specific knowledge or skills, cognitive stimulation activities such as thinking, learning, memory, planning. In this workshop are those that encourage affective activities, such as gaining insight into their own and others’ emotions, control over the expression of emotions, because the kind of knowledge about themselves and others. While not entirely true, however, is for educational workshops can be said to have converged in the area, because there is something that is more acceptable and more accurate. Examples from the workshop can be related to personal hygiene, substance abuse prevention or sex education. Well prepared and active workshops, older children can be motivated to quickly and easily adopt the seemingly complicated and serious material that may be of great benefit to independent living.
reativne workshops aim to encourage the development of divergent expression in the broadest sense.The workshop was considered successful when the participants encourage as many different products, whether in terms of ideas or specific products such as drawings, poems and the like. Kreaeatovne workshops encourage belief in their potential, but can be a form of occupational therapy and lead to valuable and useful kreaeacijama.
Experiential workshops based on personal experience and are used only for the topics that the participants are close, life. Especially used for topics that evoke a strong emotional charge. I can give excellent results but require more management skills than
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Other types of workshops. To aid in such situauacijama, when we expect a strong outpouring of emotion, can be used so. “Drama workshop” in which reaealizuju “as if” situauaciji where participants get the roles that they “protect” to better express their thoughts and feelings and to more easily feel the emotions of others, including the exchange of roles. They may also have therapeutic (psychodrama) sense but also help eliminate the fear of expected situauacija, which can be provežbati.
In older age group work also gives satisfactory results, especially the learning of social skills necessary for community living. Especially important are the skills: reactions to frustration, solving life’s problems, empathy, opportunities to interact with the social environment and the like. Apart from the application of group work, there are important initiatives for the use of specific auxiliary forms of social integration through additional institutional or postinstitucionalnu support, for example. – Involvement of young people in community life during their stay in institutions, the existence of “house on a half times a half,” alternative (transitional) housing and community learning programs koz mentoring adults (pop ut “big brother – big sister”), former resident clubs , сусрета младих који су напуапустил и заштиту и пројеката за самостал ал ан живот младих.
Наведено показује да је основни услов за смањење маргинализације и социјалне искључености деце без родитељског старања учење оних животних вештина које ће деци помоћи да се постепено укључују у живот локалне заједнице кроз систематизован програм рада, а уз могућу додатну институционалну и постинституционалну подршку. То даје шансу деци и младима да, у складу са својим способностима и стручном оспособљеношћу, посебно предузимају одговорност за сопствени живот, односно пронађу сопствено продуктивно место у животу локалне заједнице.
Такође, реформа система социјалне заштите предвиђа дугорочну активност постепене деинституционализације. То практично значи да се подстичу други облици заштите деце без родитељског старања (пре свега хранитељство и мали породични домови) који ће постепено заменити велике институције и тиме смањити утицај тзв. „домског синдрома”. То ће допринети смањену њихове маргинализације, стигматизације и социјалне искључености.
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Литература Литература Литература Литература
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1 70 Социјална мисао /2008
MARGINALIZATION AND SOC IAL EXCOMMUNIC ATION
OF CHILDREN WITHOU T PARENTAL CARE
By Vojin Vi danović
This article analyses various aspects of marginalization and social excommunication of institutionalized children without parental care. Outcome of research conducted in 12 institutions for children without parental care, which sampled 123 professionals, are data indicating the basic problems of mental health of children and youth, during the institutionalized treatment, and during preparation for independent living.
Research indicated the need of learning the social skills using the methods of group social work and by organizing educational, creative and experiencing workshops. This would reduce the basic fear of children and youth of unpredictable future, as well as thei r distrust of institutions which are responsible not only for social care, but also for thei r development and maintaiaining mental health.
Key words: children without parental care, marginalization, social excommunication, social skills, mental health.4